For the genital lesions, conditions to consider in the differential diagnosis may include candidiasis, psoriasis, dermatitis, Bowen's disease, Paget's disease, squamous cell carcinoma, Zoon's balanitis, erosive lichen planus, lichen sclerosus (balanitis xerotica obliterans), aphthosis, fixed drug eruption, and certain infectious diseases. Affected men may be at increased risk of HIV infection if, regardless of their condition, they have sexual intercourse with an infected partner. Skin irritation is the most common cause of balanitis in boys. Soaps should be avoided in active inflammation. Sometimes, the cause of balanoposthitis is unknown.

The irritant should be avoided. Correction of phimosis requires a surgical procedure, such as a dorsal slit or circumcision (removal of the foreskin). Practice healthy lifestyle and keep your immune system strong. Europe, sex partners should be tracked and treated appropriately to avoid re-infection. Bowenoid papulosis is a condition that occurs mainly in young sexually active men [54]. Usually affects middle-aged to older men who have not been circumcised. Int J of STD & AIDS. References are indexed in chronological order of publication. But men who have not been previously treated for a yeast infection should see a doctor before treating themselves with OTC anti-fungal medications for the first time.

  • For example, in cases where the foreskin can't be pulled back (phimosis) to be cleaned or there is persistent dribbling of urine following urination.
  • How this works.
  • While risk is low in healthy individuals, C.
  • Daily showering with particular attention to cleaning this area is necessary.

These overgrowths of yeast like Candida albicans can affect men, as well as women. Medicine choices, depending on the underlying cause, signs and symptoms may develop suddenly and persist for a long time. You may also have pain or discomfort when passing urine. There are two groups who are particularly vulnerable: Will you be prescribing antibiotics? Diabetes and age over 40 years increase the risk.

Scope Of Search

Most cases of balanitis aren't very serious and respond well to treatment. 3 % with secukinumab 150 mg, and 1. It must also be remembered that co-infection or super-infection can occur. Sophisticated 16S rRNA gene-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and pyrosequencing, log response ratio, Bayseyan classification, nonmetric multidimensional scaling and permutational multivariate analysis has been used in recent years to provide a much more complete picture of the penile microbiome than traditional clinical microbiological approaches. This can irritate directly, or can encourage bacteria to thrive and cause infection. The RCGP Journal for Associates in Training.

Antibiotic therapy can favour over-growth of yeasts as well other microorganisms, which in turn can favor development of balanitis.


Apply topical clotrimazole for adult men with probable candidal balanitis. Preputioplasty or frenuloplasty are never a first choice and are an option when paretns do not agree to circumcision. Very occasionally, an early type of skin cancer can present as inflammation of the end of the penis. When lesions occur around the nails, it is common for there to be hyperkeratosis underneath the nails. Such improvement may be a result of a reduction in superantigenic factors produced by Candida that activate T cells to produce cytokines involved in the pathogenesis of psoriasis [8]. Once thought to be rare, and a disorder presenting in adulthood, lichen sclerosus is now regarded as common in young boys [74], [78], [79].

A Brazilian study of men presenting for prostate cancer screening found balanoposthitis in 12% [50]. It is marked by relapses, remissions or persistent disease, with poor response to a variety of topical and oral treatment. Sometimes there is a thick clumpy discharge which comes from under the foreskin. After washing, dry the area thoroughly. Formerly, this treatment, used with peroxide powder and arsphenamine and, in severe cases, a dorsal slit, was the extent of therapy. Penile dermatoses in general have been reported in twenty [55], five [56], three [37] and two [42] times as many uncircumcised men as men who were circumcised. Usually, most common signs and symptoms of balanitis are:

In one large series, all patients with Zoon balanitis, Bowenoid papulosis, and nonspecific balanoposthitis were uncircumcised [42]. Although various herbal remedies have been touted for women with yeast infections, there’s no data on their efficacy (or lack thereof) in men. If balanitis isn’t treated effectively scarring of the foreskin can occur. Erosive lichen planus is associated with increased mast cells, foreskin scarring and phimosis in uncircumcised men [60]. This study documented adverse events associated with circumcision of 1.

How to Prevent It

2 times (95% CI 1. )This is not an indication of a security issue such as a virus or attack. Lichen sclerosus has been described as, “an urologist’s nightmare” [62]. Apart from exposure to certain medications, allergens and chemical irritants, lack of circumcision has been consistently associated with balanitis in men. Complications include: (061) [39, 40]. If you’re experiencing irritation around the head or foreskin of your penis, a physician will try to identify the cause of the irritation.

Health Solutions From Our Sponsors

Non-infectious irritants may cause atopic balanitis. If you have recurring symptoms of balanitis, your provider may recommend circumcision. Related coverage, if you keep getting infections underneath your breast, it’s best to lose weight, frequently clean underneath the breast area, and wear a properly fitted bra. Lack of circumcision is a predisposing factor, especially when the foreskin is partly or completely non-retractable [29]. Limited evidence is available regarding the incidence of candidiasis with other systemic agents.

It can be treated, and it’s often easy to prevent with some TLC. Balanitis refers to inflammation of the glans penis. (0) higher in uncircumcised males. Circumcision was recommended as the treatment of choice for lichen sclerosus in boys [61], [92], [94], whereas conservative treatment with topical steroids was considered as “controversial” [66], [81]. Specifically, it has been claimed that steroids lead to an improvement in 41–76% and a cure in only 50–60% of cases in men [72]. Symptoms include redness on the skin and itchiness or burning. It has been estimated that globally, balanitis occurs in up to 3-4% of uncircumcised males.

Thus, whereas a rate of 1% has been reported [82], two UK studies found the prevalence of lichen sclerosus to be 5% and 6% in uncircumcised boys under 18 years and under 15 years of age, respectively [83], [84]. Balanitis is not normally serious and can often be prevented by avoiding irritants and good hygiene. What are the complications of balanitis? Do not use soap. Candida species are the most prevalent, being found in approximately one-third of cases.


Yeast infections is often thought of as a female health problem, but men aren’t safe from these infections, either. 5 % with ixekizumab 80 mg every 4 weeks, 0. Balanoposthitis may be associated with use of certain glucose-lowering drugs such as sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i).


By activating your account, you will create a login and password. A common cause of infection is with a yeast called candida. Balanitis is worse in diabetic and immunocompromised patients, with fulminating edema or ulcers in severe cases [2]. Balanoposthitis only occurs in uncircumcised males.

Balanitis can be uncomfortable and sometimes painful, but it is not usually serious.

Latest News

It is a common condition that affects boys and men of all ages and most frequently appears in those who are uncircumcised, and/or who are diabetic. Also called lichen sclerosus, BXO occurs when skin on the glans hardens and turns white. Also visit your doctor if your son develops balanitis. Biopsy of foreskins following circumcision diagnosed lichen sclerosus histologically in 4–19% [2], [33]. 7 % of individuals receiving low-dose methotrexate (5–20 mg weekly) compared with 4. What hygienic measures should be taken?

If a sexually transmitted disease is the cause of your symptoms, your provider will treat the infection with antibiotics.

Another study, by Retamar and colleagues, found that 40 percent of those treated with CO laser relapsed. This can occur because it's not always possible to pull back the foreskin fully at this age, leading to a build up of a cheesy-looking substance called smegma that can irritate the skin. These observations led the authors to conclude, “The importance of circumcision as the treatment of choice is emphasized” [58]. While abundance of aerobic bacteria did not differ significantly before and after circumcision (236 vs. )Circumcision may be advised in rare cases where a child keeps getting balanitis.

Physicians should refer to their local or regional guidelines because there may be variations on available treatment options.

In many cases, it acts as both a symptom and a cause. The most common species by far is Candida albicans. As apparent from the presentation above, circumcision provides substantial protection against balanitis [42].

Differential Diagnosis

The foreskin can become so tight that it cannot retract (pull back) over the glans. In fact, skin candida albicans or mushrooms prefer growth environments that are similar to those ideal to grow edible mushrooms, that is; warmth, humidity and darkness. Reducing the prevalence of penile inflammation is therefore important. After circumcision 66% lacked positive bacterial cultures [14]. Comments are accepted in any format that is convenient to the reviewer, although an electronic format is encouraged. Balanoposthitis is treatable. If the cause of your balanitis has been traced to the soap you use, eliminate the soap and just use water in your daily cleaning. Cranberry juice:, these demands can also worsen complications. Genital yeast infection is commonly termed “candidiasis” or “thrush”.

The overall prevalence was 35% in foreskins from boys circumcised for any reason [91]. Home remedies There are no real home remedies for balanitis, other than good hygiene: An estimated one in 20 boys under five years old are affected by balanitis.

Atopic skin diathesis is seen in 25% of cases in boys and is thought to predispose to lichen sclerosus [81]. Keep reading to understand the difference between balanoposthitis and other related conditions. 6 % with placebo [43]. Some washing powders or fabric conditioners that are not rinsed well from underpants. In particular, if your diabetes is not well controlled (your blood sugar is too high) and the urine contains sugar.

We also evaluate and include evidence from NICE accredited sources which provide economic evaluations of recommendations, such as NICE guidelines.

Related Terms:

Success ranges from 65-95%. Balanophosthitis can lead to a vicious cycle. Balanoposthitis was found in 20% of 194 [49] consecutive unselected UK men, all of whom were uncircumcised [49]. It should not be applied for more than 14 days, as it can cause a thinning of the skin. Less common are: In patients with rheumatoid arthritis, oral candidiasis was reported in 10.

In refractory cases, circumcision may be necessary to prevent recurrence. Balanoposthitis is especially common in uncircumcised diabetic men [32], [50], [51]. (BXO) is a chronic, progressive, sclerosing inflammatory anogenital skin disease of uncertain cause [2]. Your partner's vaginal secretions may cause a local imbalance and subsequent symptoms. Biopsy is rarely necessary, except in refractory cases, and in cases where premalignant conditions are suspected. Asymptomatic candidal carriage of the preputial space is common (14–18%) whereby the mere positive laboratory finding of Candida spp. If the foreskin is involved as well, it is referred to as balanoposthitis. At week 12 in the smaller secukinumab phase III FEATURE and JUNCTURE trials, the rates of Candida infections were 3.

Ammonia, released from urine by bacterial hydrolysis of urea, can induce inflammation of the glans and foreskin.

3 Balanitis

Changes in scores at the end of therapy compared with baseline were analysed. In older studies, histological examination of foreskins removed for various reasons revealed lichen sclerosus in 3. 63] and in patients receiving anti-TNFα therapy compared with those receiving no therapy (hazard ratio 2. )It reviews the multifaceted relationship of both conditions, and summarizes the etiology, clinical features and treatment options for this condition. If you don’t keep that area clean, you raise your chances of getting the infection. 6 Van Howe reported significantly more balanitis in circumcised boys as compared with intact non-circumcised boys. Sex and balanitis You can have sex during treatment if your balanitis isn't caused by an infection.


The title, then abstract, of each was used to judge whether an article was of sufficient quality to merit detailed review. If left untreated, some complications may arise, such as phimosis, meatal stenosis and urinary retention. Balanitis is inflammation of the head of the penis. The study also examined boys with congenital hypospadias, 61% showing symptoms of inflammation and 15% had features consistent with lichen sclerosus. A dog with this condition behaves normally, with the exception of excessive licking at the prepuce, and a yellow green, pus-like discharge is usually present.

Adverse events were 20-fold higher for circumcision of boys aged 1–9 years and 10-fold higher for males older than 10 years old [111]. Barrisford GW. We also searched reference lists of articles and online trials registries for ongoing trials.

How can you cure balanitis? Saline baths or washing with non-medicated soap is helpful, and talcum powers can be used to help dry the area. Visit your family doctor if you suspect you have balanitis.

By qPCR and pyrosequencing bacterial vaginosis-associated taxa (including Atopobium, Megasphaera, Mobiluncus, Prevotella and Gemella) were detected in coronal sulcus specimens of both sexually experienced and inexperienced males aged 14–17 years in Indiana, USA [13].

Audit Criteria

These infections were generally mild, non-serious, and localized; they did not require interruption of psoriasis treatment and typically resolved with standard antifungal therapy. To participate, an individual must declare whether they have any competing interests or not. When some contributing factor — such as having sex with a female partner who has a vaginal yeast infection — causes an overgrowth of candida, infection can result. Diabetes management: Balanoposthitis is an important part of diabetes care for many reasons. Balanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO) is a separate and distinct condition. Virtually all of these adverse events were minor, easily treatable and after treatment there was complete resolution. HPV Some studies have raised a question regarding a possible link between the human papillomavirus (HPV) and chronic balanitis and balanoposthitis, though HPV has not conclusively been shown as a cause and more study is necessary.

Balanitis is an inflammation of the skin at the end of the penis (the glans). Often, topical corticosteroids are preferred for both areas because of low potential for irritation and the availability of topical preparations designed for these sites. It's worth getting these symptoms checked out. The most recent and authoritative data came from a study in 2020 by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Read this next, from the information presented in this review, it is apparent that dysregulation of iron in both the host and the pathogen can have consequences on the severity of infection. Older patients should be tested for diabetes. But, if there’s an imbalance in your system or you have had sex with infected partner, these yeasts can start to overgrow.

Based on the evidence, circumcision of males, particularly early in life, substantially reduced the risk of penile inflammatory conditions [112]. For example the level of protection deemed acceptable against influenza vaccines [115], [116] justifies claims that circumcision in infancy be regarded as a “surgical vaccine” [48], [117], [118]. Please read this before you delete it! the cure of the throat infection is in your hands. It is interesting to note that patients with psoriasis are more likely to develop candidiasis than normal controls since IL-17 is implicated in the pathogenesis of psoriasis [45]. Kalra S, Sharma A, Thakur A. Phimosis increases the risk of infection of the foreskin and glans.

Keep in Mind

The following factors are considered when making this assessment and analysis. If your balanitis is caused by a fungal infection, it should be treated with an anti-fungal cream, which is applied daily for at least two weeks. Balanitis (bal-uh-NIH-tus) is inflammation of the head of the penis (glans). Slide the foreskin back towards your body so the head of the penis is exposed. You’re not likely to have any serious side effects. What are the complications associated with balanitis? Who is affected? Lesions commonly involve the glans and foreskin, although the frenulum, urethral meatus and fossa navicularis may be involved as well.

It may include meatotomy or meatoplasty for meatal stenosis and urethroplasty for the urethra. Wash with warm water; do not use soap as this may irritate the area. The pyrosequencing data are roughly consistent with somewhat more limited data from studies that employed conventional clinical microbiology. The symptoms and signs of balanitis are variable.

  • If the topical or oral treatments don't work, make sure to see your doctor, as you may have another kind of balanitis or an infection by a Candida species resistant to azole antifungals.
  • (1%) underwent surgery, 35% by circumcision, 8% preputial adhesiolysis and 0.


One of the most common and real concerns that we hear at l'Actuel is; "Can I transmit this to my partner" or "Is my partner at risk"? Zoon's plasma cell balanitis. It loves warm, dark, moist places, particularly the gastrointestinal tract and the genital area. Zoon’s balanitis: Balanoposthitis occurs more often in males who have diabetes or a tight foreskin. But if you still have your foreskin, you need to take extra care of the head of your penis. Inflammation is visible. You’re also more likely to get the infection if you're overweight or have a condition that makes your body retain water, such as heart, liver, or kidney disease.

Not only do they lead to frequent medical consultations, if not treated, the consequences can include acquired phimosis and lichen sclerosis, the treatment of which is challenging. Balanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO): Once progression to urethral involvement has occurred, treatment becomes much more difficult [71].

  • It is a type of intertrigo.
  • It was remarked that, “the man-hours lost as a result of circumcisions and adjuvant therapy were costly to the war effort and exasperated the commanding officers.
  • Conversely, avoiding soaps and other potential irritants is often recommended.

When To See A Doctor

6 % with secukinumab 150 mg, and 0 and 1. Balanitis is an inflammation of the glans penis (head of the penis). About one in 25 boys and about one in 30 uncircumcised men are affected with balanitis at some time in their lives. What are the signs and symptoms of a yeast infection in men? In that study ballooning was also more common in uncircumcised boys suffering from phimosis (34% vs. )

These conditions often present with itching, tenderness and pain, cause significant morbidity, can be challenging to treat medically and add to the burden of health-care costs. We agree with current guidelines for the treatment of Candida infections, and Tables 1 and 2 can be used to help guide therapy decisions. Late circumcision (i. )025% clobetasol propionate administered as liquid microspheres significantly reduced pain compared to ointment (Mean difference (MD) -18. )Guideline development groups where the topic is an implementation of a guideline. A study of smegma swabs from 52 Nigerian boys aged 1 week to 11 years prior to circumcision identified 50 bacterial isolates, 58% gram-positive and 42% gram-negative, E. Lichen sclerosus prevalence in prepubertal German boys was 0. If you have a suppressed immune system, your doctor can recommend ways to help keep your immune system as healthy as possible.

In boys the incidence of balanitis was reported as being twice as high in those who were not circumcised [30], [31], [32], [33]. If you're circumcised, you’re not likely to get it. For further information on contraindications, cautions, drug interactions, and adverse effects, see the electronic Medicines Compendium (eMC), or the British National Formulary (BNF). Is the 3-day military diet safe and effective for weight loss? In another study 37% of pediatric patients with severe phimosis had lichen sclerosus [95]. 12% for males older than 5 years [36]. Types of balanitis There are three types of balanitis:

For Men, More Veggies May Mean Less Memory Loss

1% tacrolimus ointment [59]. Balanitis on boys still in diapers must be distinguished from redness caused by ammoniacal dermatitis. Abstinence is advisable during active infection, and appropriate counseling should be done to prevent sexual transmission of disease.

11 Emollients should be applied. In the AMAGINE-2 and AMAGINE-3 trials, Candida infections were reported in 4. However, in another study, a significant difference in pain was seen in the small subgroup of 11 ELP participants, favouring ciclosporin solution over 0. Major reviews were used for presenting clinical background. It is more likely if there is phimosis, a condition where the foreskin of the penis is too tight. Of patients with lichen sclerosus, 98% were uncircumcised [42].


Apply bacitracin (not Neosporin) for pediatric patients if bacterial infection is suspected. This procedure requires local anesthesia and, possibly, sedation. Balanoposthitis due to sexually transmitted diseases such as Herpes simplex virus, Trichomonas vaginalis or syphilis should be diagnosed and treated as per guidelines. In a report from Boston, 46% of pediatric lichen patients underwent curative circumcision; 27% also had lichen sclerosus involvement of the meatus and received not only circumcision, but meatotomy or meatoplasty [96]. Various microorganisms are another cause. To this point, patients with psoriasis have a reduction in humoral immune responses and significantly lower levels of serum IgM, IgA, and IgG against C. In addition, all patients with psoriasis should be advised to practice good hygiene to prevent Candida infections. How to diagnose and how to treat.

While topical anti-fungal creams can be used to treat each of these, usually accompanied by advice on hygiene, the definitive treatment is circumcision.

Balanoposthitis is inflammation of both the penis head and the foreskin. Candidiasis is one of the most common causes of balanoposthitis. Bacterial superinfection with streptococci or staphylococci increases pain. These conditions are either much more common in, or totally confined to, uncircumcised males. Balanitis in adults.

0956462414533099. A dysfunctioning, shrunken penis may be a contributing factor [32]. With all of these treatments, you should see an improvement in your symptoms within 7 days. 8 Terbinafine and griseofulvin are not considered to be effective for the treatment of candidal infections and are not licensed for this indication.